Word Origins

Discussion in 'Evolution of Language' started by Ken Anderson, Jan 22, 2015.

  1. Jennifer Graves

    Jennifer Graves Active Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jun 8, 2015
    Messages:
    415
    Likes Received:
    116
    I love these! Particularly "scavenger". That one surprised me at first, but then as I kept reading, it all made sense.
     
    #26
    Ken Anderson likes this.
  2. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    dragon, dragoon

    Yes, dragon and dragoon have the same word source.

    In the Iliad, Homer writes of a huge reptile, of a blood red or dark color shot with changing hues, and sometimes with three heads. He called this creature a drakon, which became dragon in the English language. Agamemnon, the Greek leader during the Trojan War, bore a shield that depicted this creature on it, according to ancient stories.

    Belief in dragons was not confined to the Greeks. Dragons are depicted in ancient artworks from China and Egypt, and the Norse Vikings carved dragon's heads on the prows of their ships. Usually, dragons are depicted as huge four-legged creatures with large fan-shaped wings extending on either side, and sometimes with blood red forked tongues, with nostrils breathing fire. They are also shown attacking enemies with their long sharp claws, and striking them with their long, scaly, forked tail. Some dragons are shown as having only one head, while others are shown with two or three heads.

    Legends describe how heroes of old fought and killed a dragon that was terrorizing the neighborhood. In English history, St. George, the patron saint and protector of the English nation, and a prince of Cappadocia, is said to have rescued Lady Aja from the jaws of a fierce dragon, and slaying the dreaded creature. The Crusaders of the 12th and 13th centuries were so impressed by this legend that they compared the dragon to their Mussulman foes, and themselves with St. George. Their banners and shields often pictures St. George killing he dragon.

    In later years, when firearms were invented, early muskets became known as dragons because of the fire and smoke that resulted upon their being fired. The English spelling became dragoon and, much as lancer became the name applied to those who fought with a lance, those who fought with a dragoon became known as dragoons.
     
    #27
    Yvonne Smith likes this.
  3. Jennifer Graves

    Jennifer Graves Active Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jun 8, 2015
    Messages:
    415
    Likes Received:
    116
    I read The Iliad, The Odyssey, and the Aeneid. And I never caught on to them believing in dragons. Then again I read them close to 40 years ago.
     
    #28
  4. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    We also have draconian (small d, of the nature of a dragon) and Draconian (capital D, harsh, like the laws of the Athenian Draco), both from the same root.

    St George is highly ubiquitous - he is not only England's patron saint, but that of Ethiopia, Portugal, Malta, Catalonia and Georgia (the country, that is). He is venerated in Syria (the oldest church in Damascus is St George's) and by most of the Coptic Christians of the Middle East.
     
    #29
    Ken Anderson likes this.
  5. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    You're right. Draconian came from Draco, the first legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece. He replaced the system of oral law by a written code that was enforced by a court. His written law became known for its harshness, and gave birth to the word, draconian, which refers to unusually cruel or severe laws. It is quite likely that the root for which Draco was named came from the same source.
     
    #30
  6. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    One phrase that has two opposing camps arguing its origins is "Cheap at half the price." Taken literally, it makes little sense - if something were half price, then it's reasonable to assume that it would be cheap.

    One camp argues that the meaning is ironic; that what is intended is, in fact, that the item in question is ludicrously expensive.

    The other side argues that the expression originates from medieval times, "cheap" (or "cheep") meaning not price but goods. Thus, goods at half price.

    One phrase, two opposing meanings. Take your pick!
     
    #31
    Ken Anderson likes this.
  7. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    hell on wheels

    Many of you will know the origins of this one, as it's been played up in movies, including a very good television series by that name, but those of you who are from other countries may not be aware of it. During the construction of the railroad through to the West Coast of the United States, particularly the Union Pacific Railroad, in the mid to late 1800s, towns were established along the way, where railroad workers would live, and where supplies were collected until the railroad moved on to the next place. Many of these towns were temporary, while others remained as railroad depots or watering points, some of the buildings were physically moved on to the next railroad terminus, and some were not even taken off the railcar, but simply remained on a siding until it was time to move on.

    These towns were largely inhabited by construction gangs living in boxcars, liquor dealers and saloon keepers, gamblers, prostitutes and other camp followers, and because there was not yet any established law in these territories, these towns were wild and lawless, the only law being that of the railroad, which was concerned only with its own interests.

    Due to their violent nature and largely to the fact that so many of the buildings that made up these towns were temporary, often literally remaining on wheels, they became known as hell on wheels, a term that was sometimes used as a label for any vice-ridden, lawless town in the Wild West, and later began to be applied derisively to men who assumed underserved superiority.
     
    #32
  8. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    slave

    Before the Christian era, not much was known of the people who lived north of the Carpathian Mountains, in the region that now includes Poland and the surrounding area. The names of a few tribes were mentioned by some Roman and Greek historians, but no one is known to have traveled to and from these lands, and no military expeditions were launched. By the 6th Century AD, the northern tribes along the Baltic began pressing to the west against their more warlike neighbors, the Germans, along the banks of the Elbe. The Germans called them Sclavs.

    In the conflicts that followed, the Germans found these people no match for their own military might, and they took many of them captive. Some of the captives were sold into serfdom to Roman and Greek buyers to the south, while others were held in bondage by the Germans. In time, nearly the entire population known (by the Germans) as the Sclavs were in bondage, and Sclav or Sclave became a term of contempt that was applied to anyone who was in bondage. When the word came into English usage, it retained the initial scl- until the 16th Century, when it began to appear as slave.
     
    #33
    Tom Locke likes this.
  9. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    In Old French, esclave, meaning a Slav.

    The same root gives us the names of the country Slovenia and the region of Slavonia, now part of Croatia.
     
    #34
    Ken Anderson likes this.
  10. Jennifer Graves

    Jennifer Graves Active Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jun 8, 2015
    Messages:
    415
    Likes Received:
    116
    I had no idea! I guess I always assumed it was a reference to some sort of war machines, (or my husband's driving). I love this thread! I learn something new everytime I open it up
     
    #35
  11. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    For aficionados of this kind of thing (and I'm bordering on the obsessive when it comes to etymology), this is a wonderful journey around words and phrases of contentious origin:

    519reepH75L._SX305_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg #

    Myths debunked by the page...and, of course, in the title.

    A general rule: if somebody tells you that a word or phrase derives from an acronym, they're usually wrong. Unless it's scuba or radar.
     
    #36
  12. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    That looks interesting, @Tom Locke. I've ordered a copy, as well as another of his books.
     
    #37
  13. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    While I was well aware of the word "maverick," I was completely unaware of its origins. The term was, originally, used to denote an animal (particularly a calf) without an owner's brand. The word derived from one Samuel Maverick, a 19th-century Texas rancher who chose not to brand his cattle.
     
    #38
    Ken Anderson likes this.
  14. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    The English language is comprised of words from all sorts of origins - Greek, Latin, Saxon, Old French and many more. One source that we sometimes overlook is Hindi. There are some, like gymkhana for example, that have an obvious Indian derivation. Others may be more surprising:

    Bangle
    Bungalow ("a house in the Bengal style")
    Cheetah
    Loot
    Pundit
    Pyjamas (I know it's spelled differently in the US, but the word is the same)
    Shampoo
    Thug

    There are other slang terms in English like cushy (easy, comfortable) that derive from Hindi and the military slang term blighty (home country) also comes from that language.
     
    #39
    Ken Anderson and Lara Moss like this.
  15. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    The word "cravat" has its origins in the wearing of ties by a Croatian cavalry regiment in the service of the French in the 17th century. The Croatian name for the country is Hrvatska and October 18th is Cravat Day. So any time that you put on a tie, it's all thanks to the Croats.
     
    #40
  16. Sheldon Scott

    Sheldon Scott Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Mar 13, 2015
    Messages:
    2,336
    Likes Received:
    3,477
    One days a group of hippy cave men were sitting around the fire eating berrys and wild boar. Suddenly, for no reason, a cave hippy named Bur Zurk jumped up and screamed, threw his food in the fire and started ranting and raving. The other cave hippys said whoa man what's the matter but Bur Zurt wouldn't say. Bur Zurk then ran from the cave, screaming, and throwing a fit. Friends ran after him saying whoa man, come back and smoke some of these weeds to calm you down.
    Since that day a word has been used to describe someone who throws a screaming fit for no apparent reason.

    Although the spelling has changed over the years we still use that word today. The word is:















    Whoa Man
     
    #41
    Bobby Cole and Ina I. Wonder like this.
  17. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    Another source from which we have acquired several words is the indigenous people of Australia. Not surprisingly, many of the names of mammals and birds, such as kangaroo, wallaby and kookaburra are those used by Aborigines. One or two other may be slightly more surprising.

    When we attract someone's attention by calling out "Cooee!" we are following the call of Aboriginal hunters, who used the call to keep in touch with their friends in dense bush. If somebody yabbers a lot, then they are a talkative person and if we undertake a lot of hard yakka, then we are doing some hard work. If we go about that work willy-nilly, we are referring back to another Aborigine word, that for a whirlwind that produces a dust storm.

    Finally, fans of Kylie Minogue - or indeed anyone else - might like to know that a 'kylie' is a kind of throwing stick or, to apply another Aboriginal name, a boomerang.
     
    #42
  18. Ina I. Wonder

    Ina I. Wonder Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 28, 2015
    Messages:
    3,467
    Likes Received:
    5,585
    Buffoon

    1. A person who amuses others by tricks, jokes, odd gestures and postures, ect.

    2. A person given to coarse or undignified joking.

    Origin: 1540-50, earier buffon < French < Italian buffone, equivalent to buff- (expressive base, compare buffa puff of breath, buffare to puff, puff up one's checks) + -one agent suffix << Latin -O, accusative -Onem

    Related forms:
    Verb = buffoonery
    Adjective = buffoonish

    Synonyms = antic, bozo, clown, comedian, comic, fool, and jester are just a few.
     
    #43
  19. Joe Riley

    Joe Riley Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Mar 3, 2015
    Messages:
    5,897
    Likes Received:
    9,032
    The word kidnap, has been kidnapped by the newspapers.:eek:
     
    #44
    Corie Henson likes this.
  20. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    Here's a couple of memes that I made for Facebook at couple of years ago.

    nickel.jpg

    salary.jpg
     
    #45
    Tom Locke likes this.
  21. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
  22. Tom Locke

    Tom Locke Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 17, 2015
    Messages:
    1,223
    Likes Received:
    2,261
    Something I discovered recently was that the word 'muscle' derives from the Latin musculus, meaning 'small mouse.' Now, mice are not renowned for being muscular, but the shape of certain muscles was thought to resemble mice and that was how the word came about.
     
    #47
    Ina I. Wonder likes this.
  23. Ken Anderson

    Ken Anderson Veteran Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2015
    Messages:
    7,445
    Likes Received:
    9,799
    Grapefruit

    Have you ever wondered how a grapefruit came to be called a grapefruit since, other than its shape, which is shares with most other fruits, a grapefruit is very dissimilar to the fruit known as a grape.

    When the word first appeared, John Lunan, who authored a botanical book about Jamaica in 1814, wrote, "There is a variety known by the name of grape-fruit, on account of its resemblance in flavour to the grape; this fruit is not near so large as the shaddock."

    Either the grapefruits of 1814 were very different than today, or Mr. Lunan had never actually tasted one.

    The grapefruit first appeared in the West Indies in the 1700s, as a natural cross between the pummelo and the orange. The pummelo, also known as pompelmoose (Dutch), is the same fruit that Mr. Lunan referred to as a shaddock, as it was named for Captain Shaddock of the East India Company, who brought it to the West Indies from the Malay archipelago in the late 1600s. The grapefruit was first described, accurately, by the Reverend Griffith Hughes, after which it was called the forbidden fruit by those who were looking for the identity of the original tree of good and evil in the Garden of Eden, a previous candidate being the banana.

    The grapefruit was called that because it grows in small bunches that someone thought looked a little bit like a clump of grapes when they were still small and green. Adding even more confusion, the pummelo is sometimes synonymous with the pomelo, a name that some had reserved for the grapefruit.
     
    #48
  24. K E Gordon

    K E Gordon Very Well-Known Member
    Registered

    Joined:
    Apr 23, 2016
    Messages:
    1,443
    Likes Received:
    1,374
    Words and their meanings and how they came to be used in common parlance is always interesting. I will sometimes look at word origins in the dictionary. I think any living, breathing language continues to evolve and there are new words that are being added all the time. It is interesting how much of our language we have borrowed from other cultures and other places in the world.
     
    #49
    Ken Anderson likes this.

Share This Page